Leptonica 1.68
C Image Processing Library

Special binarization methods, locally adaptive: Otsu and Sauvola. More...
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Functions  
l_int32  pixOtsuAdaptiveThreshold (PIX *pixs, l_int32 sx, l_int32 sy, l_int32 smoothx, l_int32 smoothy, l_float32 scorefract, PIX **ppixth, PIX **ppixd) 
PIX *  pixOtsuThreshOnBackgroundNorm (PIX *pixs, PIX *pixim, l_int32 sx, l_int32 sy, l_int32 thresh, l_int32 mincount, l_int32 bgval, l_int32 smoothx, l_int32 smoothy, l_float32 scorefract, l_int32 *pthresh) 
PIX *  pixMaskedThreshOnBackgroundNorm (PIX *pixs, PIX *pixim, l_int32 sx, l_int32 sy, l_int32 thresh, l_int32 mincount, l_int32 smoothx, l_int32 smoothy, l_float32 scorefract, l_int32 *pthresh) 
l_int32  pixSauvolaBinarizeTiled (PIX *pixs, l_int32 whsize, l_float32 factor, l_int32 nx, l_int32 ny, PIX **ppixth, PIX **ppixd) 
l_int32  pixSauvolaBinarize (PIX *pixs, l_int32 whsize, l_float32 factor, l_int32 addborder, PIX **ppixm, PIX **ppixsd, PIX **ppixth, PIX **ppixd) 
PIX *  pixSauvolaGetThreshold (PIX *pixm, PIX *pixms, l_float32 factor, PIX **ppixsd) 
PIX *  pixApplyLocalThreshold (PIX *pixs, PIX *pixth, l_int32 redfactor) 
Special binarization methods, locally adaptive: Otsu and Sauvola.
=================================================================== Image binarization algorithms are found in: grayquant.c: standard, simple, general grayscale quantization adaptmap.c: local adaptive; mostly graytogray in preparation for binarization binarize.c: special binarization methods, locally adaptive. =================================================================== Adaptive Otsubased thresholding l_int32 pixOtsuAdaptiveThreshold() 8 bpp Otsu thresholding on adaptive background normalization PIX *pixOtsuThreshOnBackgroundNorm() 8 bpp Masking and Otsu estimate on adaptive background normalization PIX *pixMaskedThreshOnBackgroundNorm() 8 bpp Sauvola local thresholding l_int32 pixSauvolaBinarizeTiled() l_int32 pixSauvolaBinarize() PIX *pixSauvolaGetThreshold() PIX *pixApplyLocalThreshold(); Notes: (1) pixOtsuAdaptiveThreshold() computes a global threshold over each tile and performs the threshold operation, resulting in a binary image for each tile. These are stitched into the final result. (2) pixOtsuThreshOnBackgroundNorm() and pixMaskedThreshOnBackgroundNorm() are binarization functions that use background normalization with other techniques. (3) Sauvola binarization computes a local threshold based on the local average and square average. It takes two constants: the window size for the measurment at each pixel and a parameter that determines the amount of normalized local standard deviation to subtract from the local average value.
Definition in file binarize.c.
l_int32 pixOtsuAdaptiveThreshold  (  PIX *  pixs, 
l_int32  sx,  
l_int32  sy,  
l_int32  smoothx,  
l_int32  smoothy,  
l_float32  scorefract,  
PIX **  ppixth,  
PIX **  ppixd  
) 
Input: pixs (8 bpp) sx, sy (desired tile dimensions; actual size may vary) smoothx, smoothy (halfwidth of convolution kernel applied to threshold array: use 0 for no smoothing) scorefract (fraction of the max Otsu score; typ. 0.1; use 0.0 for standard Otsu) &pixth (<optional return>=""> array of threshold values found for each tile) &pixd (<optional return>=""> thresholded input pixs, based on the threshold array) Return: 0 if OK, 1 on error
Notes: (1) The Otsu method finds a single global threshold for an image. This function allows a locally adapted threshold to be found for each tile into which the image is broken up. (2) The array of threshold values, one for each tile, constitutes a highly downscaled image. This array is optionally smoothed using a convolution. The full width and height of the convolution kernel are (2 * + 1) and (2 * + 1). (3) The minimum tile dimension allowed is 16. If such small tiles are used, it is recommended to use smoothing, because without smoothing, each small tile determines the splitting threshold independently. A tile that is entirely in the image bg will then hallucinate fg, resulting in a very noisy binarization. The smoothing should be large enough that no tile is only influenced by one type (fg or bg) of pixels, because it will force a split of its pixels. (4) To get a single global threshold for the entire image, use input values of and that are larger than the image. For this situation, the smoothing parameters are ignored. (5) The threshold values partition the image pixels into two classes: one whose values are less than the threshold and another whose values are greater than or equal to the threshold. This is the same use of 'threshold' as in pixThresholdToBinary(). (6) The scorefract is the fraction of the maximum Otsu score, which is used to determine the range over which the histogram minimum is searched. See numaSplitDistribution() for details on the underlying method of choosing a threshold. (7) This uses enables a modified version of the Otsu criterion for splitting the distribution of pixels in each tile into a fg and bg part. The modification consists of searching for a minimum in the histogram over a range of pixel values where the Otsu score is within a defined fraction, , of the max score. To get the original Otsu algorithm, set == 0.
Definition at line 114 of file binarize.c.
References ERROR_INT, L_MAX, L_MIN, NULL, nx, ny, pixBlockconv(), pixClone(), pixCreate(), pixDestroy(), pixGetDepth(), pixGetDimensions(), pixGetPixel(), pixSetPixel(), pixSplitDistributionFgBg(), pixThresholdToBinary(), pixTilingCreate(), pixTilingDestroy(), pixTilingGetTile(), pixTilingPaintTile(), and PROCNAME.
Referenced by main(), pixMaskedThreshOnBackgroundNorm(), and pixOtsuThreshOnBackgroundNorm().
PIX* pixOtsuThreshOnBackgroundNorm  (  PIX *  pixs, 
PIX *  pixim,  
l_int32  sx,  
l_int32  sy,  
l_int32  thresh,  
l_int32  mincount,  
l_int32  bgval,  
l_int32  smoothx,  
l_int32  smoothy,  
l_float32  scorefract,  
l_int32 *  pthresh  
) 
pixOtsuThreshOnBackgroundNorm()
Input: pixs (8 bpp grayscale; not colormapped) pixim (<optional> 1 bpp 'image' mask; can be null) sx, sy (tile size in pixels) thresh (threshold for determining foreground) mincount (min threshold on counts in a tile) bgval (target bg val; typ. > 128) smoothx (halfwidth of block convolution kernel width) smoothy (halfwidth of block convolution kernel height) scorefract (fraction of the max Otsu score; typ. 0.1) &thresh (<optional return>=""> threshold value that was used on the normalized image) Return: pixd (1 bpp thresholded image), or null on error
Notes: (1) This does background normalization followed by Otsu thresholding. Otsu binarization attempts to split the image into two roughly equal sets of pixels, and it does a very poor job when there are large amounts of dark background. By doing a background normalization first, to get the background near 255, we remove this problem. Then we use a modified Otsu to estimate the best global threshold on the normalized image. (2) See pixBackgroundNorm() for meaning and typical values of input parameters. For a start, you can try: sx, sy = 10, 15 thresh = 100 mincount = 50 bgval = 255 smoothx, smoothy = 2
Definition at line 227 of file binarize.c.
References ERROR_PTR, L_WARNING, NULL, pixBackgroundNorm(), pixDestroy(), pixGetColormap(), pixGetDepth(), pixGetDimensions(), pixGetPixel(), pixOtsuAdaptiveThreshold(), and PROCNAME.
PIX* pixMaskedThreshOnBackgroundNorm  (  PIX *  pixs, 
PIX *  pixim,  
l_int32  sx,  
l_int32  sy,  
l_int32  thresh,  
l_int32  mincount,  
l_int32  smoothx,  
l_int32  smoothy,  
l_float32  scorefract,  
l_int32 *  pthresh  
) 
pixMaskedThreshOnBackgroundNorm()
Input: pixs (8 bpp grayscale; not colormapped) pixim (<optional> 1 bpp 'image' mask; can be null) sx, sy (tile size in pixels) thresh (threshold for determining foreground) mincount (min threshold on counts in a tile) smoothx (halfwidth of block convolution kernel width) smoothy (halfwidth of block convolution kernel height) scorefract (fraction of the max Otsu score; typ. ~ 0.1) &thresh (<optional return>=""> threshold value that was used on the normalized image) Return: pixd (1 bpp thresholded image), or null on error
Notes: (1) This begins with a standard background normalization. Additionally, there is a flexible background norm, that will adapt to a rapidly varying background, and this puts white pixels in the background near regions with significant foreground. The white pixels are turned into a 1 bpp selection mask by binarization followed by dilation. Otsu thresholding is performed on the input image to get an estimate of the threshold in the nonmask regions. The background normalized image is thresholded with two different values, and the result is combined using the selection mask. (2) Note that the numbers 255 (for bgval target) and 190 (for thresholding on pixn) are tied together, and explicitly defined in this function. (3) See pixBackgroundNorm() for meaning and typical values of input parameters. For a start, you can try: sx, sy = 10, 15 thresh = 100 mincount = 50 smoothx, smoothy = 2
Definition at line 323 of file binarize.c.
References ERROR_PTR, L_WARNING, NULL, pixBackgroundNorm(), pixBackgroundNormFlex(), pixCombineMasked(), pixDestroy(), pixGetColormap(), pixGetDepth(), pixGetDimensions(), pixGetPixel(), pixInvert(), pixMorphSequence(), pixOtsuAdaptiveThreshold(), pixThresholdToBinary(), and PROCNAME.
l_int32 pixSauvolaBinarizeTiled  (  PIX *  pixs, 
l_int32  whsize,  
l_float32  factor,  
l_int32  nx,  
l_int32  ny,  
PIX **  ppixth,  
PIX **  ppixd  
) 
Input: pixs (8 bpp grayscale, not colormapped) whsize (window halfwidth for measuring local statistics) factor (factor for reducing threshold due to variance; >= 0) nx, ny (subdivision into tiles; >= 1) &pixth (<optional return>=""> Sauvola threshold values) &pixd (<optional return>=""> thresholded image) Return: 0 if OK, 1 on error
Notes: (1) The window width and height are 2 * + 1. The minimum value for is 2; typically it is >= 7.. (2) For nx == ny == 1, this defaults to pixSauvolaBinarize(). (3) Why a tiled version? (a) Because the mean value accumulator is a uint32, overflow can occur for an image with more than 16M pixels. (b) The mean value accumulator array for 16M pixels is 64 MB. The mean square accumulator array for 16M pixels is 128 MB. Using tiles reduces the size of these arrays. (c) Each tile can be processed independently, in parallel, on a multicore processor. (4) The Sauvola threshold is determined from the formula: t = m * (1  k * (1  s / 128)) See pixSauvolaBinarize() for details.
Definition at line 435 of file binarize.c.
References ERROR_INT, L_WARNING_INT, NULL, nx, ny, pixCreateNoInit(), pixDestroy(), pixGetColormap(), pixGetDepth(), pixGetDimensions(), pixSauvolaBinarize(), pixTilingCreate(), pixTilingDestroy(), pixTilingGetTile(), pixTilingNoStripOnPaint(), pixTilingPaintTile(), and PROCNAME.
Referenced by main(), and PixTest2().
l_int32 pixSauvolaBinarize  (  PIX *  pixs, 
l_int32  whsize,  
l_float32  factor,  
l_int32  addborder,  
PIX **  ppixm,  
PIX **  ppixsd,  
PIX **  ppixth,  
PIX **  ppixd  
) 
Input: pixs (8 bpp grayscale; not colormapped) whsize (window halfwidth for measuring local statistics) factor (factor for reducing threshold due to variance; >= 0) addborder (1 to add border of width ( + 1) on all sides) &pixm (<optional return>=""> local mean values) &pixsd (<optional return>=""> local standard deviation values) &pixth (<optional return>=""> threshold values) &pixd (<optional return>=""> thresholded image) Return: 0 if OK, 1 on error
Notes: (1) The window width and height are 2 * + 1. The minimum value for is 2; typically it is >= 7.. (2) The local statistics, measured over the window, are the average and standard deviation. (3) The measurements of the mean and standard deviation are performed inside a border of ( + 1) pixels. If pixs does not have these added border pixels, use = 1 to add it here; otherwise use = 0. (4) The Sauvola threshold is determined from the formula: t = m * (1  k * (1  s / 128)) where: t = local threshold m = local mean k = (>= 0) [ typ. 0.35 ] s = local standard deviation, which is maximized at 127.5 when half the samples are 0 and half are 255. (5) The basic idea of Niblack and Sauvola binarization is that the local threshold should be less than the median value, and the larger the variance, the closer to the median it should be chosen. Typical values for k are between 0.2 and 0.5.
Definition at line 560 of file binarize.c.
References ERROR_INT, NULL, pixAddMirroredBorder(), pixApplyLocalThreshold(), pixClone(), pixDestroy(), pixGetColormap(), pixGetDepth(), pixGetDimensions(), pixRemoveBorder(), pixSauvolaGetThreshold(), pixWindowedMean(), pixWindowedMeanSquare(), and PROCNAME.
Referenced by pixSauvolaBinarizeTiled(), and PixTest1().
Input: pixm (8 bpp grayscale; not colormapped) pixms (32 bpp) factor (factor for reducing threshold due to variance; >= 0) &pixsd (<optional return>=""> local standard deviation) Return: pixd (8 bpp, sauvola threshold values), or null on error
Notes: (1) The Sauvola threshold is determined from the formula: t = m * (1  k * (1  s / 128)) where: t = local threshold m = local mean k = (>= 0) [ typ. 0.35 ] s = local standard deviation, which is maximized at 127.5 when half the samples are 0 and half are 255. (2) See pixSauvolaBinarize() for other details. (3) Important definitions and relations for computing averages: v == pixel value E(p) == expected value of p == average of p over some pixel set S(v) == square of v == v * v mv == E(v) == expected pixel value == mean value ms == E(S(v)) == expected square of pixel values == mean square value var == variance == expected square of deviation from mean == E(S(v  mv)) = E(S(v)  2 * S(v * mv) + S(mv)) = E(S(v))  S(mv) = ms  mv * mv s == standard deviation = sqrt(var) So for evaluating the standard deviation in the Sauvola threshold, we take s = sqrt(ms  mv * mv)
Definition at line 670 of file binarize.c.
References CALLOC, ERROR_PTR, FREE, GET_DATA_BYTE, NULL, pixCreate(), pixGetColormap(), pixGetData(), pixGetDepth(), pixGetDimensions(), pixGetWpl(), PROCNAME, and SET_DATA_BYTE.
Referenced by pixSauvolaBinarize().
Input: pixs (8 bpp grayscale; not colormapped) pixth (8 bpp array of local thresholds) redfactor ( ... ) Return: pixd (1 bpp, thresholded image), or null on error
Definition at line 753 of file binarize.c.
References ERROR_PTR, GET_DATA_BYTE, NULL, pixCreate(), pixGetColormap(), pixGetData(), pixGetDepth(), pixGetDimensions(), pixGetWpl(), PROCNAME, and SET_DATA_BIT.
Referenced by pixSauvolaBinarize().